Wednesday, February 08, 2006




The subjunctive form is used for verbs that have not definitely happened or definitely will happen.
Example: I hope that you will run.
In that sentence, “you” will not definitely run. The speaker is merely talking about “you” running.

Here is how to make verbs in the subjunctive tense in Spanish:

put the verb in the “yo-form”
drop the “o”
-ar verbs get -er endings
-er and -ir verbs get -ar endings

(there are some irregulars, but I will get to those later)

example: hablar => hablo => habl- => hable hablemos
hables hableis (accent over e)
hable hablen

For -gar, -zar, and -car verbs, keep the pronunciation of the consonants.

For stem changers:
-ar and -er verbs that have stem changes in present tense keep the stem change in the boot. The boot is all verb form except for nosotros and vosotros.
Contar: cuente contamos
cuentes conteis (accent over e)
cuente cuenten

-ir verbs are a little bit different. They still maintain the stem change inside the boot, but out side the boot there is either an e->i stem change or and o->u stem change.

Now the irregulars:
de(accent over e) demos
des deis
de(accent over e) den

este(accent over e) estemos
estes esteis
este(accent over e) esten(accent over e)

vaya vayamos
vayas vayais(accent over a)
vaya vayan

sepa sepamos
sepas sepais(accent over a)
sepa sepan

sea seamos
seas seais(accent over a)
sea sean

This is how you use subjunctive in a Spanish sentence:

verb of influence (“I hope” from the first example sentence) + que + new subject + subjunctive verb

I hope that you will run = Espero que tu corras

Wednesday, January 18, 2006



Many tenses

Present Tense
ar verbs:
o amos
as ais(accent over i)
a an

er verbs:
o emos
es eis(accent over e)
e en

ir verbs:
o imos
es is(accent over i)
e en

e(accent) amos
aste asteis
o aron

i(accent) imos
iste isteis
io(accent over o) ieorn

andar - anduv
caber - cup
estar - estuv
haber - hub
hacer - hic
poder - pud
poner - pus
querer - quis
saber - sup
tener - tuv
venir - vin
decir - dij
traer -traj

aba abamos(accent over a)
abas abais
aba aban

ia(accent over i) iamos(accent over i)
ias(accent over i) iais(accent over 1st i)
ia(accent over i) ian(accent over i)

era eramos(accent over e)
eras erais
era eran

iba ibamos(accent over i)
ibas ibais
iba iban

Tuesday, November 29, 2005



If you know Spanish and think you can add any mini-lessons to this site, please email them to

I think that people will learn the best with diverse lessons. It is better to learn from many persons' expiriences than mine alone.

Thanks a lot.


Gustar and others

Sentences with gustar, when lterally translated, are passive sentences.
Passive: The car was driven by me.
Active: I drove the car.

To conjugate verbs like gustar, begin by using the pronoun for the subject.
me - I
te - you
le - he/she
nos - us/we
os - you (plural)
les - they/them

gustar = to like

Me gustan los tacos = The tacos are liked by me.
Altnernately, you can still translate it as I like the tacos.

Verbs like gustar will come in two forms when conjugated. Gustar will be either gusta or gustan.
Gusta is used if the subject is singular. Gustan is used when the subject is plural. Remember, in Me gustan los tacos, the subject is los tacos not me. This is becuase it is techincally a passive sentence.

You can use these principles with other verbs like gustar. Here they are:
encantar = to enchant
faltar = to lack
fascinar = to fascinate
molestar = to bother
interesar = to interest
quedar = to look (good/bad)
importar = to care
caer = to like



Here are some words relating to clothing and accessories:
descatarse = to stand out
disenador = designer
moda = fashion, style
suelto = loose
temporada = season
unico = unique
vestuario = wardrobe
billetera = wallet
bolso = shoulder bag
cadena = chain
llavero = keychain
medalla = medallion
monedero = change purse
pendientes = dangling earings
prendedor = pin
sudaderas = sweats
caer bien/mal = to like/dislike
comodo = comfortable
detestar = to hate
formidable = great
genial = wonderful
horrible = horrible
incomodo = uncomfortable
pesado = boring; heavy
algodon = cotton
color brillante = bright color
color claro = pastel
color oscuro = dark color
cuero = leather
de un solo color = of a solid color
estampado = print
fleco = fringe
lana = wool
lentejuela = sequin
lunares = polka dots
mezclilla = denim
poliester = polyester
seda = silk
ancho = wide
apretado = tight
estrecho = narrow
flojo = loose
hacer juego con = to match with
oscuro = dark
un par de = a pair of
las rayas = stripes
sencillo = simple



Here are some pastimes and their Spanish translations:

acampar = to camp
coleccionar = to collect
escalar montañas = to mountain climb
esquiar en el agua = to waterski
hacer alpinismo = to go hiking
hacer montañismo = to go mountaineering
navegar en tabla de vela = to windsurf
navegar por internet = to surf the internet
pescar en alta mar = to go deep sea fishing
pilotar una avioneta = to fly a single-engine plane
volar en planeador = to hang-glide


Future Tense

Here are the conjugations for future tense words:

e emos
as eis
a an

These endings are the same for er, ar, and ir verbs.

There is no stem before the suffix; you just use the infinitive.
ex: you will eat = correras

However, there are irregular "stems." Here they are:
poder = podr
poner = pondr
sailr = soldr
tener = tendr
venir = vendr
decir = dir
hacer = har
querer = querr
haber = habr
saber = sabr

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